Earth is the third planet from the Sun. It is the only planet known to support life nowadays. Liquid water makes up 71% of Earth's entire surface, and only 29% is solid land. Earth is the largest terrestrial planet and is the fifth largest planet, with the fifth largest natural satellite. It is home to a sapient race of organisms referred to as Modern Humans, or Homo Sapiens scientifically. They have a population of 7.9 billion and is currently causing an ongoing period of geographic mass extinction on Earth.
The Earth formed from a clump of rocky materials and particles about 4.54 billion years ago. It was a molten planet with extreme volcanic activity and had an atmosphere composed mostly of hydrogen and helium, similar to that of the Sun and Jovians' atmosphere composition.
Around 4.53 billion years ago, a massive Earth trojan planet referred to as Theia, came in an unstable orbit around Earth and caused a catastophic collision event. This collision completely obliterated Theia and ripped off Earth's outer crust, throwing back the leftover debris into a planetary ring system, like Saturn. The ring system later clumped together into a molten ball of rock and debris which would be now known as the Moon.
Earth's Sister Planet
Venus, the Earth's neighboring planet, is classified as its sister due to its similar size and shape. However, they're very different from each other. Venus has ongoing volcanic activity and a thick atmosphere which traps heat on the surface, making a catastrophic greenhouse effect on the entire planet and making life impossible. Earth, on the other hand, is 70.6% water and has an atmosphere of oxygen and nitrogen, unlike Venus.
The Earth's atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen. In fact, more than three fourths of the atmosphere is nitrogen. Oxygen makes up just more than one-fourth of the atmosphere. The rest is made up of less than one percent argon and carbon dioxide.
The atmosphere is split into two main layers: the troposphere and the stratosphere. The troposphere is the closest layer of the atmosphere to us. All of the weather on Earth occurs in this layer. The stratosphere is the lowest layer of the mesosphere, and is where the temperature of the atmosphere begins to increase due to the absorption of ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. This layer is also rich with ozone, for it contains a portion of the ozone layer.
Other layers include the mesosphere, the region in the atmosphere at which the temperatures drop to below -100 degrees Fahrenheit due to radiation being reflected away from this layer into the stratosphere. This layer is where the majority of the ozone layer is found. The ozone layer is the layer created by the build up of ozone, which is a gaseous substance that absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
Clouds are another addition in the atmosphere. These occur when air in the troposphere begins to rise and then fall. The cool air falls since it is more dense and the warm air rises because it is less dense. This process is called convection. When water vapor rises, it becomes heated and continues rising because it becomes less dense. Then, once it rises above the clouds, it cools and condenses, becoming clouds.
|Name||Oceans Water||Creating||Creating Year||Created Thing||Life|
|Earth||Salty||With Meteors||4,542,997,979 BC||Asteroid||Yes|
Satellites that orbited Earth
|Giotto||ESA||2 July 1990||22,730 km|
|Galileo||NASA||8 December 1990||301 km|
|Sakigake||ISAS||8 January 1992||88,790 km|
|Suisei||ISAS||20 August 1992||failure|
|Galileo||NASA||8 December 1992|
|Sakigake||ISAS||14 June 1993
28 October 1994
|NEAR Shoemaker||NASA||23 January 1998||540 km|
|Nozomi||ISAS||20 December 1998||1000 km|
|Giotto||ESA||1 July 1999||failure|
|18 August 1999||1171 km|
|Stardust||NASA||15 January 2001||6000 km|
19 June 2003
|Hayabusa||ISAS||19 May 2004||20,000 km|
|Rosetta||ESA||4 March 2005||1950 km|
|MESSENGER||NASA||2 August 2005||2348 km|
|Stardust||NASA||15 January 2006|
|Rosetta||ESA||13 November 2007|
|Deep Impact||NASA||31 December 2007
|Stardust||NASA||14 January 2009||9200 km|
|Rosetta||ESA||13 November 2009|
|Deep Impact||NASA||June 2009
|Juno||NASA||9 October 2013||559 km|
|Hayabusa 2||JAXA||3 December 2015|
|PROCYON||University of Tokyo
|3 December 2015|
|Shin'en 2||Kyutech||4 December 2015|
|OSIRIS-REx||NASA||22 September 2017||17,237 km|
TriviaIt's Only Owned Lifes
Tectonic plates are the makeup of the lithosphere. These plates can be 60 km thick and are the plates that drive the continents. These plates can join together to form boundaries. Some boundaries can cause geographical features such as mountains when they collide and push up the crust plate (convergent boundary), some can cause earthquakes when they slide against each other causing tension (transform boundary), or seafloor spreading when two plates move away from one another (divergent boundary).
Due to this, there is a process called continental drift. Continental drift was founded by Alfred Wegener, and involves all of the continents moving about the Earth, but the change is so small, it is undetectable by humans. This theory proves that Pangaea existed more than 250 million years ago. Pangaea was a supercontinent that combined all of the known continents we know today. Through the process of continental drift, Pangaea split up after going through several changes and shifted into the places the continents are in today.
Orbit and Rotation
Earth's orbit takes one Earthern year. This is equal to 365.25 Earthern days. With the extra one-fourth, every four years, the one-fourth becomes a whole and adds an extra Earthern day, making it a leap year.
Earth takes 23 hours, 57 minutes to make one rotation on its axis. This number is mostly rounded to what we know as 24 hours in one Earthen day.
Mercury • Venus • Earth • Mars • Jupiter • Saturn • Uranus • Neptune